Wind effects on bounding flight

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


The effects of the wind on the energy expenditure of bounding flight and on the travelling speed are dealt with. For this purpose, a mathematical model of bounding flight in moving air is developed. Introducing an appropriate non-dimensionalization, results and findings of generally valid nature are derived. It is shown that bounding flight yields a flight mechanical advantage in headwinds when compared with continuous flapping flight. This is because the minimum energy expenditure is lower and the associated travelling speed is higher. The body lift in the bound phase has an advantageous influence. The effects of tailwinds yield less differences between bounding flight and continuous flapping flight.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)35-41
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Theoretical Biology
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2013


  • Body lift
  • Energy expenditure
  • Intermittent flight
  • Travelling speed
  • Wind effect


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