Use of headgear in football - A computer simulation of the human head and neck

Stefan Lehner, Oskar Wallrapp, Veit Senner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Although head injuries in football having approximately the same incidence as in American football and ice hockey, head protectors are barely used for prophylaxis. A detailed human head-neck model including force elements describing the material behaviour of human soft tissue structures such as ligaments, tendons, cartilage layers, intervertebral discs and muscles has been developed using multi-body system (MBS) modelling techniques to investigate the effectiveness of commercial headgear. For ball-head impacts at ball velocity of about v = 20 m/s the simulations calculate a Head Impact Power (HIP) index of 4.1 kW resulting in a five percent injury risk for concussion. When using headgear the resulting HIP-value comes to 3.91 kW meaning that the reduction of the injury risk is very small.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3263-3268
Number of pages6
JournalProcedia Engineering
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 2010


  • Ball impact
  • Cervical spine
  • Computer simulation
  • Football
  • Headgear


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