Updates of operative techniques for upper airway stimulation

Clemens Heiser, Erica Thaler, Maurits Boon, Ryan J. Soose, B. Tucker Woodson

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

95 Scopus citations


Selective upper airway stimulation has been established as an additional treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Essential for the treatment is the precise placement of the cuff electrode for select branches of the hypoglossal nerve, which innervate the protrusors and stiffeners of the tongue. A direct approach to the distal hypoglossal nerve has been established to achieve this goal. For surgeons, detailed knowledge of this anatomy is vital. Another decisive step is the placement of the sensing lead between the intercostal muscles. Also, the complexity of follow-up care postoperatively should be kept in mind. The aim of this article is to provide the latest knowledge on the neuroanatomy of the hypoglossal nerve and to give surgeons a step-by-step guide on the current operative technique. Laryngoscope, 126:S12–S16, 2016.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S12-S16
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2016


  • Obstructive sleep apnea
  • hypoglossal nerve
  • sleep medicine
  • surgical treatment obstructive sleep apnea
  • upper airway stimulation


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