Unitary control in quantum ensembles: Maximizing signal intensity in coherent spectroscopy

S. J. Glaser, T. Schulte-Herbrüggen, M. Sieveking O, Schedletzky, N. C. Nielsen, O. W. Sørensen, C. Griesinger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

170 Scopus citations


Experiments in coherent magnetic resonance, microwave, and optical spectroscopy control quantum-mechanical ensembles by guiding them from initial states toward target states by unitary transformation. Often, the coherences detected as signals are represented by a non-Hermitian operator. Hence, spectroscopic experiments. Such as those used in nuclear magnetic resonance, correspond to unitary transformations between operators that in general are not Hermitian. A gradient-based systematic procedure for optimizing these transformations is described that finds the largest projection of a transformed initial operator onto the target operator and, thus, the maximum spectroscopic signal. This method can also be used in applied mathematics and control theory.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)421-424
Number of pages4
Issue number5362
StatePublished - 17 Apr 1998
Externally publishedYes


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