Tuning halide perovskite energy levels

Laura Canil, Tobias Cramer, Beatrice Fraboni, Damiano Ricciarelli, Daniele Meggiolaro, Ajay Singh, Maning Liu, Marin Rusu, Christian M. Wolff, Nga Phung, Qiong Wang, Dieter Neher, Thomas Unold, Paola Vivo, Alessio Gagliardi, Filippo De Angelis, Antonio Abate

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

135 Scopus citations


The ability to control the energy levels in semiconductors is compelling for optoelectronic applications. In this study, we managed to tune the work function (WF) of halide perovskite semiconductors using self-assembled monolayers of small molecules to induce stable dipoles at the surface. The direction and intensity of the surface dipoles rely on specific molecule-to-surface interactions. Electron acceptor or donor molecules result in the positive or negative WF shifts up to several hundreds of meV. Our approach provides a versatile tool to control the WF of halide perovskite and adjust the energy level alignment at the interface with charge transport materials in perovskite-based optoelectronics. The impact on perovskite solar cells is reported and discussed in detail with the support of modelling.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1429-1438
Number of pages10
JournalEnergy and Environmental Science
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2021


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