Transport in toroidal devices-the experimentalist's view

F. Wagner, U. Stroth

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

257 Scopus citations

Abstract

In this paper we summarize the present status of experimental tokamak confinement studies. Under quiescent conditions, ion heat and impurity transport can be close to the neoclassical level. Generally, however, radial transport is enhanced by instabilities. There is evidence that anomalous ion heat and momentum transport may be caused by turbulence driven by the ion temperature gradient. The same level of understanding is not reached in electron heat and particle transport. Electron heat transport is characterized by a highly nonlinear relation between heat flux and temperature gradient. Particle transport is strongly governed by off-diagonal contributions. Where possible, the tokamak results are compared with those from stellarators, in particular with those from W7-AS. Such a comparison is meaningful because stellarators and tokamaks share many transport aspects. In both cases transport is generally anomalous, degrades with heating power and increases toward the edge. Bifurcations such as the tokamak H-mode transition are also observed in the W7-AS stellarator. Transport in stellarators, although anomalous, seems to be less confused by additional complexities such as large off-diagonal contributions, profile resilience, disparities between steady-state and perturbatively determined transport coefficients and an isotopic mass dependence in energy and particle transport. Differences in magnetic field and minor radius scaling seem to be introduced by operational restrictions: rotational transform iota is constant in stellarator field or size scans whereas q a generally varies with current, field, or size in tokamaks.

Original languageEnglish
Article number002
Pages (from-to)1321-1371
Number of pages51
JournalPlasma Physics and Controlled Fusion
Volume35
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - 1993
Externally publishedYes

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