Toward defect-free components in laser metal deposition with coaxial wire feeding through closed-loop control of the melt pool temperature

Christian Bernauer, Avelino Zapata, Michael F. Zaeh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations

Abstract

Laser metal deposition (LMD) is an additive manufacturing process in which a metal powder or wire is added to a laser-induced molten pool. This localized deposition of material is used for the manufacturing, modification, and repair of a wide range of metal components. The use of wire as feedstock offers various advantages over the use of powder in terms of the contamination of the process environment, the material utilization rate, the ease of handling, and the material price. However, to achieve a stable process as well as defined geometrical and microstructural properties over many layers, precise knowledge on the effects of the input variables of the process on the resulting deposition characteristics is required. In this work, the melt pool temperature was used as an input parameter in LMD with coaxial wire feeding of stainless steel, which was made possible through the use of a dedicated closed-loop control system based on pyrometry. Initially, a temperature range was determined for different process conditions in which a stable deposition was obtained. Within this range, the cause-effect relationships between the melt pool temperature and the resulting geometry as well as the material properties were investigated for individual weld beads. It was found that the melt pool temperature is positively correlated with the width of the weld bead as well as the dilution. In addition, a dependence of the microhardness distribution over the cross section of a weld bead on the melt pool temperature was demonstrated, with an increased temperature negatively affecting the hardness.

Original languageEnglish
Article number042044
JournalJournal of Laser Applications
Volume34
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2022

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