Toward Acoustic Landscapes: A Digital Design Workflow for Embedding Noise Reduction in Ground-forming

Karen Lee Bar-Sinai, Tom Shaked, Elif Simge Fettahoglu, Jochen Krimm, Ekaterina Pestriakova, Liubov Kniazeva, Sharon Friedberg, Benedikt Boucsein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Noise pollution is considered the number two environmental health risk in Europe, and there is increasing global awareness of the health risks associated with noise exposure. As urbanization expands, a growing number of people are exposed to urban noise, to which airports and large urban infrastructure are significant contributors. Unlike indoor noise, which is extensively addressed using digital tools in architecture, there are limited parallel efforts in landscape architecture. In this context, mitigating outdoor noise through ground forming can replace the standard use of sound barriers and offer noise reduction means together with recreational use. The paper presents and demonstrates a digital workflow for designing acoustic grounds. The workflow links environmental noise data, parametric design, and acoustic simulation in a single design environment. A case study site adjacent to Munich Airport is used to demonstrate the workflow and comparatively examine the acoustic performance of different design patterns. The results indicate a possibility of reducing noise levels through ground forming.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)273-283
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Digital Landscape Architecture
Issue number8
StatePublished - 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • acoustic landscapes
  • noise mitigation
  • Performative grounds


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