Time delay of monitors of the hypnotic component of anesthesia: Analysis of state entropy and index of consciousness

Matthias Kreuzer, Robert Zanner, Stefanie Pilge, Sabine Paprotny, Eberhard F. Kochs, Gerhard Schneider

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Scopus citations


Monitors evaluating the hypnotic component of anesthesia by analyzing the electroencephalogram (EEG) may help to decrease the incidence of intraoperative awareness with recall. To calculate an index representing the anesthetic level, these monitors have different time delays until the correct index is displayed. In previous studies, intraoperatively recorded real and simulated EEG signals were used to determine time delays of cerebral state and Narcotrend and Bispectral indices. In the present study, we determined time delays of state entropy and index of consciousness. For this purpose, recorded real and simulated EEG sequences representing different anesthetic levels were played back to the tested monitors.Simulated and real perioperatively recorded EEG signals indicating stable states "awake," "general anesthesia," and "cortical suppression" were used to evaluate the time delays. Time delays were measured when switching from one state to another and were defined as the required time span of the monitor to reach the stable target index. Comparable results were obtained using simulated and real EEG sequences. Time delays were not constant and ranged from 18 to 152 seconds. They were also different for increasing and decreasing values. Time delays were dependent on starting and target index values. Time delays of index calculation may limit the investigated monitor's ability to prevent interoperative awareness with recall. Different time delays for increasing and decreasing transitions could be a problem if the monitors are used for pharmacodynamic studies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)315-319
Number of pages5
JournalAnesthesia and Analgesia
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 2012


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