Thymosin ß4 and MRTF-A mitigate vessel regression despite cardiovascular risk factors

Christian Kupatt, Tilman Ziegler, Andrea Bähr, Ferdinand Le Noble

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Since clinical revascularization techniques of coronary or peripheral artery disease (CAD/PAD) focus on macrovessels of the heart, the microcirculatory compartment largely goes unnoticed. However, cardiovascular risk factors not only drive large vessel atherosclerosis, but also microcirculatory rarefaction, an instance unmet by current therapeutic schemes. Angiogenic gene therapy has the potential to reverse capillary rarefaction, but only if the disease-causing inflammation and vessel-destabilization are addressed. This review summarizes the current knowledge with regard to capillary rarefaction due to cardiovascular risk factors. Moreover, the potential of Thymosin ß4 (Tß4) and its downstream signal, myocardin-related transcription factor-A (MRTF-A), to counteract capillary rarefaction are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number109786
JournalInternational Immunopharmacology
StatePublished - Apr 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • AAV
  • Angiogenesis
  • Arteriogenesis
  • Capillary rarefaction
  • Gene therapy


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