The pink topaz-bearing calcite, quartz, white mica veins from Ghundao Hill (North West Frontier Province, Pakistan): K/Ar age, stable isotope and REE data

G. Morteani, A. Voropaev

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations

Abstract

In the area of the Ghundao Hill (Northern Frontier Province, Pakistan) an orange-yellow to cherry-red topaz is found in calcite, quartz, white mica veins crosscutting the schistosity of probably Silurian to Devonian gray limestones. Topaz with such a range of colours is traded as Imperial Topaz. Low fluorine contents of about 15 wt.%, oxygen isotope thermometry, K/Ar age determination on white mica, fluid inclusion data and mineral textures indicate that the topaz from Ghundao Hill crystallized at temperatures of about 230°C during the Eocene Himalayan tectonothermal event and not from a late to postmagmatic granite-related fluid. The pink Topaz from Ghundao Hill shares the coexistence with carbonates, low fluorine content and a crystallization at low temperature and pressure during a regional tectonothermal event with the Imperial Topaz from Ouro Preto (Brazil) and from the Sanarka/ Kamenka rivers (South Urals, Russia). The efficiency of topaz to remove fluorine from fluids at low temperature explains how topaz can be formed from metamorphic fluids that are typically poor in fluorine. High CO2 activity produced in the fluids by metamorphic decarbonatisation reactions and Al buffering by white mica prevented fluorination of carbonates stabilising topaz relative to fluorite.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)31-44
Number of pages14
JournalMineralogy and Petrology
Volume89
Issue number1-2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2007
Externally publishedYes

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