The level of DNA modification by (+)-syn-(11S,12R,13S,14R)- and (-)-anti-(11R,12S,13S,14R)- dihydrodiol epoxides of dibenzo[a,l]pyrene determined the effect on the proteins p53 and p21(WAF1) in the human mammary carcinoma cell line MCF-7

Andreas Luch, Kim Kudla, Albrecht Seidel, Johannes Doehmer, Helmut Greim, William M. Baird

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38 Scopus citations

Abstract

The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) dibenzo[a,l]-pyrene (DB[a,l]P), the most carcinogenic PAH tested in rodent bioassays, exerts its pathobiological activity via metabolic formation of electrophilically reactive DNA-binding fjord region (+)-syn-(11S,12R,13S,14R)- or (-)-anti( 11R,12S,13S,14R)-DB [a,l]P-dihydrodiol epoxides (DB[a,l]-PDEs). DB[a,l]P is metabolized to these DB[a,l]PDEs which bind to DNA in human mammary carcinoma MCF-7 cells. The molecular response of MCF-7 cells to DNA damage caused by DB[a,l]-PDEs was investigated by analyzing effects on the expression of the tumor suppressor protein p53 and one of its target gene products, the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(WAF1). Treatment of MCF-7 cells with (+)-syn- and (-)-anti-DB[a,l]PDE at a concentration range of 0.001-0.1 μM resulted in DB[a,l]PDE-DNA adduct levels between l and 30, and 3 and 80 pmol/mg DNA, respectively, 8 h after exposure. (-)-anti-DB[a,l]PDE exhibited a higher binding efficiency that correlated with a significantly stronger p53 response at low concentrations of the dihydrodiol epoxides. The level of p53 increased by 6-8 h after treatment. The p21(WAF1) protein amount exceeded control levels by 12 h and remained elevated for 96 h. At a dose of 0.01 μM (+)-syn-DB[a,l]PDE, an increase in p21(WAF1) was observed in the absence of a detectable change in p53 levels. The results indicate that the increase in p53 induced by DB[a,l]PDEs in MCF-7 cells requires an adduct level of ~ 15 pmol/mg DNA and suggest that the level of adducts rather than the specific structure of the DB[a,l]PDE-DNA adduct formed triggers the p53 response. The PAH-DNA adduct level formed may determine whether p53 and p21(W)AF1) pathways respond, resulting in cell-cycle arrest, or fail to respond and increase the risk of mutation induction by these DNA lesions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)859-865
Number of pages7
JournalCarcinogenesis
Volume20
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - 1999
Externally publishedYes

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