The impact of passive alveolar molding vs. nasoalveolar molding on cleft width and other parameters of maxillary growth in unilateral cleft lip palate

Robert Parhofer, Andrea Rau, Karin Strobel, Lina Gölz, Renée Stark, Lucas M. Ritschl, Klaus Dietrich Wolff, Marco R. Kesting, Florian D. Grill, Corinna L. Seidel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective: Passive alveolar molding (PAM) and nasoalveolar molding (NAM) are established presurgical infant orthodontic (PSIO) therapies for cleft lip palate (CLP) patients. PAM guides maxillary growth with a modified Hotz appliance, while NAM also uses extraoral taping and includes nasal stents. The effects of these techniques on alveolar arch growth have rarely been compared. Material and methods: We retrospectively compared 3D-scanned maxillary models obtained before and after PSIO from infants with unilateral, non-syndromic CLP treated with PAM (n = 16) versus NAM (n = 13). Nine anatomical points were set digitally by four raters and transversal/sagittal distances and rotations of the maxilla were measured. Results: Both appliances reduced the anterior cleft, but NAM percentage wise more. NAM decreased the anterior and medial transversal width compared to PAM, which led to no change. With both appliances, the posterior width increased. The alveolar arch length of the great and small segments and the sagittal length of the maxilla increased with PAM but only partially with NAM. However, NAM induced a significant greater medial rotation of the larger and smaller segment compared to PAM with respect to the lateral angle. Conclusions: NAM and PAM presented some significant differences regarding maxillary growth. While NAM reduced the anterior cleft and effectively rotated the segments medially, PAM allowed more transversal and sagittal growth. Clinical relevance: The results of this study should be taken into consideration when to decide whether to use PAM or NAM, since they show a different outcome within the first few months. Further studies are necessary regarding long-term differences.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5001-5009
Number of pages9
JournalClinical Oral Investigations
Volume27
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2023

Keywords

  • Cleft lip palate
  • Maxillary growth
  • Nasoalveolar molding
  • Passive alveolar molding
  • Presurgical orthodontics

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