The changes in Lemna minor metabolomic profile: A response to diclofenac incubation

Rofida Wahman, Catarina Cruzeiro, Johanna Graßmann, Peter Schröder, Thomas Letzel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Metabolomics is an emerging approach that investigates the changes in the metabolome profile. In the present study, Lemna minor —considered as an experimental aquatic plant model— was incubated with 10 and 100 μM diclofenac (DCF) for 96 h, respectively. Knowing that DCF is internationally often problematic in wastewater effluents and that it might affect particularly the metabolic profiles in aquatic plants, mainly the oxidoreductase, dehydrogenase, peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activities, here it was hypothesized (H) that in the common duckweed, DCF might increase the phenolic and flavonoids pathways, as an antioxidant response to this stress (H1). Also, it was expected DCF to alternate the physiological characteristics, especially the molecular interaction and biochemical properties, of Lemna (H2). Metabolic changes were investigated with target and untargeted screening analysis using RPLC-HILIC-ESI-TOF-MS. Twelve amino acids were identified in all treatments, together with three organic acids (p-coumaric, cinnamic, and sinapic acids). In untargeted screening, the important metabolites to discriminate between different treatments were assigned to Lemna such as organic acids, lignin, sugars, amino acids, dipeptides, flavonoids, biflavonoids, fatty acids, among others. In resume, Lemna responded to both DCF concentrations, showing different stress patterns. A similar metabolic response had already been identified in other studies in exposing Lemna to other anthropogenic stressors (like pesticides).

Original languageEnglish
Article number132078
StatePublished - Jan 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Anti-inflammatory compounds
  • Aquatic plants
  • Organic and amino acids
  • Reducing potential
  • Untargeted screening analysis


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