Texture design of gluten-free bread by mixing under controlled headspace atmosphere

Sabina Paulik, Christoph Paczkowski, Rita Laukemper, Thomas Becker, Mario Jekle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Gluten-free breads often show a reduced specific bread volume, in comparison to gluten-containing products, caused by non-adapted processing technologies of gluten-free dough. In this investigation, different mixing speeds and durations (600–3000 rpm for 3 min, 5 min or 8 min, respectively) as well as variations in the pressure (prel– 50 to prel + 130 kPa) in the headspace atmosphere during mixing (Stephan mixer) and pressure ratios of overpressure/negative pressure of 8 min mixing (20/80, 50/50, 80/20) were studied to determine their impact on the gas volume fraction of dough and specific volume of breads. A pressure rise of prel 50 kPa, prel 100 kPa or prel 130 kPa increased the gas volume fraction in dough of 60%, 100% or 120%, respectively, and led to a significant higher specific bread volume (7%) and the reduction of crumb hardness (35%) at prel 130 kPa. A linear correlation (R2 = 0.843) between the pressure and specific volume of breads was found. An extended first mixing phase at overpressure resulted in the formation of a very fine pore structure, whereby a short overpressure phase caused the formation of big pores. Thus, the control of the headspace atmosphere during mixing is a suitable parameter to adjust the density of dough and consequently, the pore size distribution for a specific texture design.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2333-2343
Number of pages11
JournalEuropean Food Research and Technology
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2021


  • Dough density
  • Gas distribution
  • Kneading
  • Rice starch
  • Starch hydration
  • Structure–function relation


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