Test Panel of Hidden Allergens for “Idiopathic Anaphylaxis” Reveals Wheat Allergy Dependent on Augmentation Factors as Common Final Diagnosis

Nida Oztop, Martin Valentin Vitus, Valentina Faihs, Claudia Kugler, Tilo Biedermann, Knut Brockow

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Idiopathic anaphylaxis (IA) is an unresolved concern. Hidden allergens may be relevant in IA and in nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug hypersensitivity (NSAID-HS). Objective: To identify hidden elicitors for IA and NSAID-HS by a skin prick test (SPT) (13 allergens) and allergen-specific IgE (sIgE) panel (12 allergens) and to determine the value of each tested allergen. Methods: We retrospectively included all patients from 2018 to 2021 referred with a suspicion of IA or NSAID-HS by history in whom SPT and/or sIgE to allergens of the IA panel were performed. Patient characteristics from patients’ records included comorbidities, history and symptoms of anaphylaxis, serum baseline tryptase level, total IgE level, SPT, sIgE, challenge results, and final diagnoses. Results: A total of 134 patients (77 female, mean age 39.7 ± 14.6 years) were included. Median serum baseline tryptase and total IgE levels were 4.23 μg/L and 133.5 kU/L, respectively. Allergologic workup with the IA panel resulted in positive SPT and sIgE in 61 (47%) and 66 (60%) patients, respectively. In those, confirmation or exclusion of allergy, mostly by challenge, led to a definitive diagnosis in 61 of 134 patients (46%). Skin prick test was most frequently positive to gluten (22.4%) and sIgE to ω5-gliadin (21.6%), which correlated with the history (r = 0.310, P < .001; and r = 0.407, P < .001, respectively). In 28 of 134 patients (21%) with initially suspected IA or NSAID-HS, challenges confirmed occult food allergy in which wheat allergy dependent on augmentation factors was the most frequent cause of anaphylaxis (19%). Conclusions: Wheat allergy dependent on augmentation factors should be considered in all patients with anaphylaxis of unknown cause or after NSAID intake.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2024

Keywords

  • Allergen-specific IgE
  • Challenge
  • Hidden allergens
  • Idiopathic anaphylaxis
  • NSAID
  • Skin prick test
  • Wheat allergy dependent on augmentation factors
  • Wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis

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