Temporal Aggregated Analysis of GPS Trajectory Data Using Two-Fluid Model

Yunfei Zhang, Allister Loder, Felix Rempe, Klaus Bogenberger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The market for on-demand mobility services is growing worldwide. These services include, for example, ride-hailing, ride-sharing, and car-sharing. Large-scale fleets of such services collect GPS trajectory (probe vehicle) data constantly everywhere in the network. At a certain penetration rate, this data becomes representative of the entire road network. It can give valuable insights into traffic dynamics and the evolution of congestion. In this paper, we use such GPS trajectory data from Chengdu, China, to investigate the stability and recurrence of macroscopic traffic patterns. Using the two-fluid theory, we find that the two-fluid coefficients are robust on between-day variation, not only supporting the theory itself but also emphasizing that the general evolution of traffic is a robust pattern. We investigate the deviations from the model using time series analysis of the residuals of the two-fluid model. Here, we find evidence for daily and weekly seasonality in the residuals, indicating that congestion patterns are convincingly recurring. These patterns can be used for network-wide traffic state prediction. We conclude that GPS trajectory data from large on-demand mobility fleets is a promising data source for observing traffic patterns in urban road networks once the data becomes representative.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)103-116
Number of pages14
JournalTransportation Research Record
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2023


  • GPS trajectory
  • macroscopic analysis
  • on-demand mobility
  • two-fluid model


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