Techniques for attainment, control, and calibration of cryogenic temperatures at small single-crystal samples under ultrahigh vacuum

H. Schlichting, D. Menzel

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Abstract

On the basis of detailed considerations of the relevant effects and parameters, we describe techniques which have been developed to accurately set, maintain, and measure the temperature of a small sample (typically a single-crystal disk of about 1 cm in diameter and 1 mm thick) in a strongly nonisothermal surrounding in ultrahigh vacuum, such as required by surface science experiments, in the temperature range from at least 6.5 K up. The resettability and resolution are 30-70 mK and the absolute error is estimated as about 0.7 K at 10 K and about 1.5 K at 100 K. Controlled linear heating with rates from 10-2 to 50 K/s and high constancy (deviations below 0.1 K up to 5 K/s and below 0.5 K up to 50 K/s), and stepwise heating (>100 K/s) without measurable overshoot can be carried out in this whole cryogenic range.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2013-2022
Number of pages10
JournalReview of Scientific Instruments
Volume64
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - 1993

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