Synthesis of N-Heterocycles via Oxidant-Free Dehydrocyclization of Alcohols Using Heterogeneous Catalysts

Kangkang Sun, Hongbin Shan, Guo Ping Lu, Chun Cai, Matthias Beller

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

76 Scopus citations


N-Heterocycles, such as pyrroles, pyrimidines, quinazolines, and quinoxalines, are important building blocks for organic chemistry and the fine-chemical industry. For their synthesis, catalytic borrowing hydrogen and acceptorless dehydrogenative coupling reactions of alcohols as sustainable reagents have received significant attention in recent years. To overcome the problems of product separation and catalyst reusability, several metal-based heterogeneous catalysts have been reported to achieve these transformations with good yields and selectivity. In this Minireview, we summarize recent developments using both noble and non-noble metal-based heterogeneous catalysts to synthesize N-heterocycles from alcohols and N-nucleophiles via acceptorless dehydrogenation or borrowing hydrogen methodologies. Furthermore, this Minireview introduces strategies for the preparation and functionalization of the corresponding heterogeneous catalysts, discusses the reaction mechanisms and the roles of metal electronic states, and the influence of support Lewis acid–base properties on these reactions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)25188-25202
Number of pages15
JournalAngewandte Chemie International Edition in English
Issue number48
StatePublished - 22 Nov 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • N-heterocycles
  • acceptorless dehydrogenation
  • borrowing hydrogen
  • green chemistry
  • heterogeneous catalysis


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