Synthesis of Active Cell Balancing Architectures for Battery Packs

Martin Lukasiewycz, Matthias Kauer, Sebastian Steinhorst

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Active balancing architectures effectively increase the efficiency of large battery packs by equalizing charge between cells. For this purpose, a balancing circuit and appropriate control scheme have to be designed to enable the charge transfer via energy storage elements such as inductors. Using a manual approach to design balancing architectures can be tedious and error-prone, resulting in potentially suboptimal solutions. As a remedy, this paper presents an automatic synthesis of balancing circuits and their corresponding control, optimizing the number of required metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors, and necessary control signals. The proposed synthesis combines a satisfiability solver to explore the search space with a graph-based verification that iteratively excludes infeasible solutions until the optimal architectures are obtained. The experimental results are carried out for three given template circuits and two signal templates. The synthesis results in architectures that are superior in terms of all design objectives in comparison to solutions from literature that result from a manual design approach.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7410015
Pages (from-to)1876-1889
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Active cell balancing
  • battery pack design
  • circuit synthesis


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