Sonographic evaluation of lateral meniscal extrusion: implementation and validation

Philipp W. Winkler, Robert Csapo, Guido Wierer, Caroline Hepperger, Bernhard Heinzle, Andreas B. Imhoff, Christian Hoser, Christian Fink

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Introduction: Meniscal extrusion (ME) is an important indicator of and prognostic factor for various knee pathologies. To date, no standardized protocol for the ultrasound-based examination of lateral ME exists. The purpose of the present study was to test the reliability and validity of lateral ME measurements using a standardized ultrasound-based examination protocol. Materials and Methods: A group consisting of 11 healthy volunteers (Group I, male and female, 18–45 years) as well as a group of 10 consecutive patients who had undergone all-inside lateral meniscal radial tear repair were included (Group II, male and female, 23–43 years). Lateral ME, the main outcome parameter, was measured by ultrasound (US; both groups) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; Group II only). Both knees of all subjects were examined in an unloaded state and under axial compression of the knee (50% of body weight). Repeated measurements obtained in Group I by 2 observers were used for reliability testing, and the validity of US was assessed through comparison with MRI data (Group II). Results: A total of 66 US images of Group I, obtained by each observer, were analyzed for reliability testing. Forty US and MR images of Group II were assessed for validation. Results showed good interrater (ICC = 0.904) and excellent intrarater (ICC = 0.942) reliability of US-based measurements of lateral ME. Agreement with MRI results was poor (ICC = 0.439), with US systematically overestimating results by 1.1 mm on average. Conclusions: Ultrasound is a reliable, quick and cost-effective technique for lateral ME measurement, but results are not readily comparable with MRI. Trial registration: The study was registered in the European Union Clinical Trials Register (EudraCT-Number: 2017-005037-24).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)271-281
Number of pages11
JournalArchives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Dynamic extrusion
  • Dynamic ultrasound
  • Lateral meniscal extrusion
  • Stress MRI
  • Ultrasound
  • Validation


Dive into the research topics of 'Sonographic evaluation of lateral meniscal extrusion: implementation and validation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this