Solid state transformers: Concepts, classification, and control

Mohammed Azharuddin Shamshuddin, Felix Rojas, Roberto Cardenas, Javier Pereda, Matias Diaz, Ralph Kennel

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

51 Scopus citations


Increase in global energy demand and constraints from fossil fuels have encouraged a growing share of renewable energy resources in the utility grid. Accordingly, an increased penetration of direct current (DC) power sources and loads (e.g., solar photovoltaics and electric vehicles) as well as the necessity for active power flow control has been witnessed in the power distribution networks. Passive transformers are susceptible to DC offset and possess no controllability when employed in smart grids. Solid state transformers (SSTs) are identified as a potential solution to modernize and harmonize alternating current (AC) and DC electrical networks and as suitable solutions in applications such as traction, electric ships, and aerospace industry. This paper provides a complete overview on SST: concepts, topologies, classification, power converters, material selection, and key aspects for design criteria and control schemes proposed in the literature. It also proposes a simple terminology to identify and homogenize the large number of definitions and structures currently reported in the literature.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2319
Issue number9
StatePublished - May 2020


  • Classification of SSTs
  • Passive transformers
  • Power electronics transformer (PET)
  • Smart grids
  • Solid state transformer (SST)


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