Soil and water contamination with carbofuran residues in agricultural farmlands in Kenya following the application of the technical formulation Furadan

Peter O. Otieno, Joseph O. Lalah, Munir Virani, Isaac O. Jondiko, Karl Werner Schramm

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

63 Scopus citations

Abstract

This study was undertaken to determine the concentrations of carbofuran residues in water, soil and plant samples from selected sites in the farmlands in Kenya and to demonstrate the impact of Furadan use on the local environment. Soil, water and plant samples obtained from agricultural farmlands where the technical formulation Furadan has been used extensively showed high environmental contamination with concentrations of carbofuran and its two toxic metabolites 3-hydroxycarbofuran and 3-ketocarbofuran, separately, ranging from 0.010-1.009 mg/kg of dry surface soil, 0.005-0.495 mg/L in water samples from two rivers flowing through the farms and bdl-2.301 mg/L in water samples from ponds and dams located close to the farms. Maize plant samples contained these residues in concentrations ranging from 0.04-1.328 mg/kg of dry plant tissue. The significantly high concentration levels of carbofuran and its metabolites, 3-ketocarbofuran and 3-hydroxycarbofuran, found in various matrices demonstrate that Furadan was used extensively in the two areas and that there was environmental distribution and exposure of residues in water which posed risks when used for domestic purposes or as drinking water for animals in two wildlife conservancies where the dams and ponds are located. Surface soil contamination was also high and posed risks through run-off into the dams and rivers as well as through secondary exposure to small birds and mammals.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)137-144
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of environmental science and health. Part. B, Pesticides, food contaminants, and agricultural wastes
Volume45
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2010
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Agricultural soil
  • Carbofuran residues
  • Dams
  • Environmental contamination
  • Furadan
  • Water

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