Search for Multi-flare Neutrino Emissions in 10 yr of IceCube Data from a Catalog of Sources

R. Abbasi, M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. Ahrens, C. Alispach, A. A. Alves, N. M. Amin, R. An, K. Andeen, T. Anderson, G. Anton, C. Argüelles, Y. Ashida, S. Axani, X. Bai, A. Balagopal V., A. Barbano, S. W. BarwickB. Bastian, V. Basu, S. Baur, R. Bay, J. J. Beatty, K. H. Becker, J. Becker Tjus, C. Bellenghi, S. Benzvi, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Z. Besson, G. Binder, D. Bindig, E. Blaufuss, S. Blot, M. Boddenberg, F. Bontempo, J. Borowka, S. Böser, O. Botner, J. Böttcher, E. Bourbeau, F. Bradascio, J. Braun, S. Bron, J. Brostean-Kaiser, S. Browne, A. Burgman, R. T. Burley, R. S. Busse, M. A. Campana, E. G. Carnie-Bronca, C. Chen, D. Chirkin, K. Choi, B. A. Clark, K. Clark, L. Classen, A. Coleman, G. H. Collin, J. M. Conrad, P. Coppin, P. Correa, D. F. Cowen, R. Cross, C. Dappen, P. Dave, C. De Clercq, J. J. Delaunay, H. Dembinski, K. Deoskar, S. De Ridder, A. Desai, P. Desiati, K. D.De Vries, G. De Wasseige, M. De With, T. Deyoung, S. Dharani, A. Diaz, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, M. Dittmer, H. Dujmovic, M. Dunkman, M. A. Duvernois, E. Dvorak, T. Ehrhardt, P. Eller, R. Engel, H. Erpenbeck, J. Evans, P. A. Evenson, K. L. Fan, A. R. Fazely, S. Fiedlschuster, A. T. Fienberg, K. Filimonov, C. Finley, L. Fischer, D. Fox, A. Franckowiak, E. Friedman, A. Fritz, P. Fürst, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, E. Ganster, A. Garcia, S. Garrappa, L. Gerhardt, A. Ghadimi, C. Glaser, T. Glauch, T. Glüsenkamp, A. Goldschmidt, J. G. Gonzalez, S. Goswami, D. Grant, T. Grégoire, S. Griswold, M. Gündüz, C. Günther, C. Haack, A. Hallgren, R. Halliday, L. Halve, F. Halzen, M. Ha Minh, K. Hanson, J. Hardin, A. A. Harnisch, A. Haungs, S. Hauser, D. Hebecker, K. Helbing, F. Henningsen, E. C. Hettinger, S. Hickford, J. Hignight, C. Hill, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, R. Hoffmann, T. Hoinka, B. Hokanson-Fasig, K. Hoshina, F. Huang, M. Huber, T. Huber, K. Hultqvist, M. Hünnefeld, R. Hussain, S. In, N. Iovine, A. Ishihara, M. Jansson, G. S. Japaridze, M. Jeong, B. J.P. Jones, D. Kang, W. Kang, X. Kang, A. Kappes, D. Kappesser, T. Karg, M. Karl, A. Karle, U. Katz, M. Kauer, M. Kellermann, J. L. Kelley, A. Kheirandish, K. Kin, T. Kintscher, J. Kiryluk, S. R. Klein, R. Koirala, H. Kolanoski, T. Kontrimas, L. Köpke, C. Kopper, S. Kopper, D. J. Koskinen, P. Koundal, M. Kovacevich, M. Kowalski, T. Kozynets, E. Kun, N. Kurahashi, N. Lad, C. Lagunas Gualda, J. L. Lanfranchi, M. J. Larson, F. Lauber, J. P. Lazar, J. W. Lee, K. Leonard, A. Leszczyńska, Y. Li, M. Lincetto, Q. R. Liu, M. Liubarska, E. Lohfink, C. J.Lozano Mariscal, L. Lu, F. Lucarelli, A. Ludwig, W. Luszczak, Y. Lyu, W. Y. Ma, J. Madsen, K. B.M. Mahn, Y. Makino, S. Mancina, I. C. Mariş, R. Maruyama, K. Mase, T. McElroy, F. McNally, J. V. Mead, K. Meagher, A. Medina, M. Meier, S. Meighen-Berger, J. Micallef, D. Mockler, T. Montaruli, R. W. Moore, R. Morse, M. Moulai, R. Naab, R. Nagai, U. Naumann, J. Necker, L. V. Nguyen, H. Niederhausen, M. U. Nisa, S. C. Nowicki, D. R. Nygren, A. Obertacke Pollmann, M. Oehler, B. Oeyen, A. Olivas, E. O'Sullivan, H. Pandya, D. V. Pankova, N. Park, G. K. Parker, E. N. Paudel, L. Paul, C. Pérez De Los Heros, L. Peters, J. Peterson, S. Philippen, D. Pieloth, S. Pieper, M. Pittermann, A. Pizzuto, M. Plum, Y. Popovych, A. Porcelli, M. Prado Rodriguez, P. B. Price, B. Pries, G. T. Przybylski, C. Raab, A. Raissi, M. Rameez, K. Rawlins, I. C. Rea, A. Rehman, P. Reichherzer, R. Reimann, G. Renzi, E. Resconi, S. Reusch, W. Rhode, M. Richman, B. Riedel, E. J. Roberts, S. Robertson, G. Roellinghoff, M. Rongen, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, D. Ryckbosch, D. Rysewyk Cantu, I. Safa, J. Saffer, S. E.Sanchez Herrera, A. Sandrock, J. Sandroos, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, K. Satalecka, M. Scharf, M. Schaufel, H. Schieler, S. Schindler, P. Schlunder, T. Schmidt, A. Schneider, J. Schneider, F. G. Schröder, L. Schumacher, G. Schwefer, S. Sclafani, D. Seckel, S. Seunarine, A. Sharma, S. Shefali, M. Silva, B. Skrzypek, B. Smithers, R. Snihur, J. Soedingrekso, D. Soldin, C. Spannfellner, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, J. Stachurska, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, R. Stein, J. Stettner, A. Steuer, T. Stezelberger, T. Stürwald, T. Stuttard, G. W. Sullivan, I. Taboada, F. Tenholt, S. Ter-Antonyan, S. Tilav, F. Tischbein, K. Tollefson, L. Tomankova, C. Tönnis, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, A. Trettin, M. Tselengidou, C. F. Tung, A. Turcati, R. Turcotte, C. F. Turley, J. P. Twagirayezu, B. Ty, M. A.Unland Elorrieta, N. Valtonen-Mattila, J. Vandenbroucke, N. Van Eijndhoven, D. Vannerom, J. Van Santen, S. Verpoest, M. Vraeghe, C. Walck, T. B. Watson, C. Weaver, P. Weigel, A. Weindl, M. J. Weiss, J. Weldert, C. Wendt, J. Werthebach, M. Weyrauch, N. Whitehorn, C. H. Wiebusch, D. R. Williams, M. Wolf, K. Woschnagg, G. Wrede, J. Wulff, X. W. Xu, Y. Xu, J. P. Yanez, S. Yoshida, S. Yu, T. Yuan, Z. Zhang

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Abstract

A recent time-integrated analysis of a catalog of 110 candidate neutrino sources revealed a cumulative neutrino excess in the data collected by IceCube between 2008 April 6 and 2018 July 10. This excess, inconsistent with the background hypothesis in the Northern Hemisphere at the 3.3σ level, is associated with four sources: NGC 1068, TXS 0506+056, PKS 1424+240, and GB6 J1542+6129. This Letter presents two time-dependent neutrino emission searches on the same data sample and catalog: a point-source search that looks for the most significant time-dependent source of the catalog by combining space, energy, and time information of the events, and a population test based on binomial statistics that looks for a cumulative time-dependent neutrino excess from a subset of sources. Compared to previous time-dependent searches, these analyses enable a feature to possibly find multiple flares from a single direction with an unbinned maximum-likelihood method. M87 is found to be the most significant time-dependent source of this catalog at the level of 1.7σ post-trial, and TXS 0506+056 is the only source for which two flares are reconstructed. The binomial test reports a cumulative time-dependent neutrino excess in the Northern Hemisphere at the level of 3.0σ associated with four sources: M87, TXS 0506+056, GB6 J1542+6129, and NGC 1068.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberL45
JournalAstrophysical Journal Letters
Volume920
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 20 Oct 2021

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