S2k guideline for the treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa / acne inversa – Short version

Christos C. Zouboulis, Falk G. Bechara, Klaus Fritz, Matthias Goebeler, Frank H. Hetzer, Elke Just, Natalia Kirsten, Georgios Kokolakis, Hjalmar Kurzen, Georgios Nikolakis, Andreas Pinter, Maurizio Podda, Kerstin Rosinski, Sylke Schneider-Burrus, Klaus M. Taube, Thomas Volz, Thomas Winkler, Anna Kristandt, Dagmar Presser, Viktor A. Zouboulis

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1 Scopus citations


The S2k guideline on hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa (HS/AI) aims to provide an accepted decision aid for the selection/implementation of appropriate/sufficient therapy. HS/AI is a chronic recurrent, inflammatory, potentially mutilating skin disease of the terminal hair follicle-glandular apparatus, with painful, inflammatory lesions in the apocrine gland-rich regions of the body. Its point prevalence in Germany is 0.3%, it is diagnosed with a delay of 10.0 ± 9.6 years. Abnormal differentiation of the keratinocytes of the hair follicle-gland apparatus and accompanying inflammation form the central pathogenetic basis. Primary HS/AI lesions are inflammatory nodules, abscesses and draining tunnels. Recurrences in the last 6 months with at least 2 lesions at the predilection sites point to HS/AI with a 97% accuracy. HS/AI patients suffer from a significant reduction in quality of life. For correct treatment decisions, classification and activity assessment should be done with a validated tool, such as the International Hidradenitis Suppurativa Severity Scoring System (IHS4). HS/AI is classified into two forms according to the degree of detectable inflammation: active, inflammatory (mild, moderate, and severe according to IHS4) and predominantly inactive, non-inflammatory (Hurley grade I, II and III) HS/AI. Oral tetracyclines or 5-day intravenous therapy with clindamycin are equal to the effectiveness of clindamycin/rifampicin. Subcutaneously administered adalimumab, secukinumab and bimekizumab are approved for the therapy of HS/AI. Various surgical procedures are available for the predominantly non-inflammatory disease form. Drug/surgical combinations are considered a holistic therapy method.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)868-889
Number of pages22
JournalJDDG - Journal of the German Society of Dermatology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2024
Externally publishedYes


  • acne inversa
  • classification
  • guideline
  • hidradenitis suppurativa
  • severity
  • therapy


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