Rotational range of motion of elliptical and spherical heads in shoulder arthroplasty: a dynamic biomechanical evaluation

Lukas N. Muench, Alexander Otto, Cameron Kia, Elifho Obopilwe, Mark P. Cote, Andreas B. Imhoff, Knut Beitzel, Augustus D. Mazzocca, Julian Mehl

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations

Abstract

Introduction: Elliptical shape humeral head prostheses have been proposed to reflect a more anatomic shoulder replacement. Its effect on the rotational range of motion (ROM) compared to a standard spherical head is still not understood. The purpose was to investigate if there would be a difference in rotational ROM when comparing elliptical and spherical prosthetic heads in a dynamic shoulder model. The authors hypothesized that the use of elliptical heads would result in significantly more rotational ROM compared to the spherical head design. Materials and methods: Six fresh-frozen, cadaveric shoulders were evaluated using a dynamic shoulder model. After being tested in the native condition, each specimen underwent 6 conditions in the hemiarthroplasty state: (1) matched-fit spherical head, (2) oversized spherical head, (3) undersized spherical head, (4) matched-fit elliptical head, (5) oversized elliptical head, and (6) undersized elliptical head. Following conversion to total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA), the 6 prior conditions were rerun. Each condition was tested at 0°, 30° and 60° of glenohumeral abduction. Rotational ROM was quantified using 3-dimensional tracking, while dynamically applying alternating forces for internal and external rotation via the rotator cuff tendons. Results: Elliptical and spherical prosthetic heads showed no significant difference in the degree of the total, internal, and external rotational ROM for both the hemiarthroplasty and TSA state. Conversion from hemiarthroplasty to TSA resulted in less degree of total rotational ROM for both head designs in all abduction positions, without reaching statistical significance. There was a significant decrease in total, internal, and external rotational ROM for both elliptical and spherical heads in every replacement condition, when comparing 0° to 30° and 60° of abduction (P < 0.05, respectively). Conclusion: In a dynamic shoulder model, elliptical and spherical prosthetic head designs showed no significant difference in the degree of the total, internal, and external rotational ROM in both the hemiarthroplasty and TSA state. Level of evidence: Controlled laboratory study.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)67-76
Number of pages10
JournalArchives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
Volume142
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2022

Keywords

  • Elliptical
  • Hemiarthroplasty
  • Humeral head
  • Prosthesis design
  • Rotational range of motion
  • Spherical
  • Total shoulder arthroplasty

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