Review on physical impedance models in modern battery research

Rohit Ranganathan Gaddam, Leon Katzenmeier, Xaver Lamprecht, Aliaksandr S. Bandarenka

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

37 Scopus citations


Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is a versatile tool to understand complex processes in batteries. This technique can investigate the effects of battery components like the electrode and electrolyte, electrochemical reactions, interfaces, and interphases forming in the electrochemical systems. The interpretation of the EIS data is typically made using models expressed in terms of the so-called electrical equivalent circuits (EECs) to fit the impedance spectra. Therefore, the EECs must unambiguously represent the electrochemistry of the system. EEC models with a physical significance are more relevant than the empirical ones with their inherent imperfect description of the ongoing processes. This review aims to present the readers with the importance of physical EEC modeling within the context of battery research. A general introduction to EIS and EEC models along with a brief description of the mathematical formalism is provided, followed by showcasing the importance of physical EEC models for EIS on selected examples from the research on traditional, aqueous, and newer all-solid-state battery systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12926-12944
Number of pages19
JournalPhysical Chemistry Chemical Physics
Issue number23
StatePublished - 21 Jun 2021


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