Resilience of barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants upon exposure to tramadol: Implication for the root-associated bacterial community and the antioxidative plant defence system

David Mamdouh Khalaf, Catarina Cruzeiro, Roberto Siani, Susanne Kublik, Peter Schröder

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Insufficiently treated reclaimed water can act as a source of contamination by introducing recalcitrant contaminants (e.g., pharmaceutical compounds) to various water bodies and/or agricultural soils after irrigation. Tramadol (TRD) is one of these pharmaceuticals that can be detected in influents and effluents of wastewater treatment plants, at discharge points as well as in surface waters in Europe. While the uptake of TRD by plants through irrigation water has been shown, plant responses towards this compound are still unclear. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effects of TRD on selected plant enzymes as well as on the root bacterial community structure. A hydroponic experiment was conducted to test the effects of TRD (100 μg L−1 TRD) on barley plants, at two harvesting time points after treatment. Accumulation of TRD in root tissues over time was observed reaching concentrations of 111.74 and 138.39 μg g−1 in total root FW after 12 and 24 days of exposure, respectively. Furthermore, noticeable inductions in guaiacol peroxidase (5.47-fold), catalase (1.83-fold) and glutathione S-transferase (3.23- and 2.09-fold) were recorded in roots of TRD-treated plants compared to controls after 24 days. A significant alteration in the beta diversity of root-associated bacteria due to TRD treatment was observed. Three amplicon sequence variants assigned to Hydrogenophaga, U. Xanthobacteraceae and Pseudacidovorax were differentially abundant in TRD-treated compared to control plants at both harvesting time points. This study reveals the resilience of plants through the induction of the antioxidative system and changes in the root-associated bacterial community to cope with the TRD metabolization/detoxification process.

Original languageEnglish
Article number164260
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Volume892
DOIs
StatePublished - 20 Sep 2023
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Amplicon 16S
  • Bacterial microbiome
  • Oxidative stress
  • Pharmaceutical contamination
  • Root uptake

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