TY - JOUR

T1 - Quantum phase transition between symmetry enriched topological phases in tensor-network states

AU - Haller, Lukas

AU - Xu, Wen Tao

AU - Liu, Yu Jie

AU - Pollmann, Frank

N1 - Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 authors. Published by the American Physical Society. Published by the American Physical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.

PY - 2023/10

Y1 - 2023/10

N2 - Quantum phase transitions between different topologically ordered phases exhibit rich structures and are generically challenging to study in microscopic lattice models. In this paper, we propose a tensor-network solvable model that allows us to tune between different symmetry enriched topological (SET) phases. Concretely, we consider a decorated two-dimensional toric code model for which the ground state can be expressed as a two-dimensional tensor-network state with bond dimension D=3 and two tunable parameters. We find that the time-reversal (TR) symmetric system exhibits three distinct phases: (i) an SET toric code phase in which anyons transform nontrivially under TR, (ii) a toric code phase in which TR does not fractionalize, and (iii) a topologically trivial phase that is adiabatically connected to a product state. We characterize the different phases using the topological entanglement entropy and a membrane order parameter that distinguishes the two SET phases. Along the phase boundary between the SET toric code phase and the toric code phase, the model has an enhanced U(1) symmetry and the ground state is a quantum critical loop gas wavefunction whose squared norm is equivalent to the partition function of the classical O(2) model. By duality transformations, this tensor-network solvable model can also be used to describe transitions between SET double-semion phases and between Z2×Z2T symmetry protected topological phases in two dimensions.

AB - Quantum phase transitions between different topologically ordered phases exhibit rich structures and are generically challenging to study in microscopic lattice models. In this paper, we propose a tensor-network solvable model that allows us to tune between different symmetry enriched topological (SET) phases. Concretely, we consider a decorated two-dimensional toric code model for which the ground state can be expressed as a two-dimensional tensor-network state with bond dimension D=3 and two tunable parameters. We find that the time-reversal (TR) symmetric system exhibits three distinct phases: (i) an SET toric code phase in which anyons transform nontrivially under TR, (ii) a toric code phase in which TR does not fractionalize, and (iii) a topologically trivial phase that is adiabatically connected to a product state. We characterize the different phases using the topological entanglement entropy and a membrane order parameter that distinguishes the two SET phases. Along the phase boundary between the SET toric code phase and the toric code phase, the model has an enhanced U(1) symmetry and the ground state is a quantum critical loop gas wavefunction whose squared norm is equivalent to the partition function of the classical O(2) model. By duality transformations, this tensor-network solvable model can also be used to describe transitions between SET double-semion phases and between Z2×Z2T symmetry protected topological phases in two dimensions.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85175402408&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1103/PhysRevResearch.5.043078

DO - 10.1103/PhysRevResearch.5.043078

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85175402408

SN - 2643-1564

VL - 5

JO - Physical Review Research

JF - Physical Review Research

IS - 4

M1 - 043078

ER -