Quantifying the carbon footprint of energy storage applications with an energy system simulation framework — Energy System Network

Anupam Parlikar, Benedikt Tepe, Marc Möller, Holger Hesse, Andreas Jossen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Energy storage is a crucial flexibility measure to temporally decouple power generation from power demand and is touted as the missing link in realizing a decarbonized energy system based on renewable energy. Energy storage capacity buildup at all levels of the global energy system is expected to accelerate the decarbonization process. To this end, a coherent mathematical framework to ascertain the carbon footprint of localized energy systems with energy storage is indispensable. This article presents an open-source energy system simulation program — Energy System Network (ESN). A variety of energy system configurations can be simulated with the Python program, which incorporates key energy system components such as generation, grid, storage, and loads. ESN features an integrated bottom-up approach that combines energy system modeling with streamlined life cycle assessment techniques to quantify the carbon footprint of all components in a localized energy system. The lifecycle phases of each component, including production, operation, and end-of-life treatment, can be considered. Carbon footprint values are obtained for two demonstrative case studies with lithium-ion battery applications: energy arbitrage and home energy systems. The metric Levelized Emissions of Energy Supply (LEES) has been used to evaluate the carbon footprint of each application. An unconventional energy arbitrage strategy designed to exploit the grid carbon intensity spreads instead of the energy price spreads manages to achieve a LEES value about 17% lower than the conventional variant. The influence of rooftop solar generation, battery energy storage system, and the energy management strategy on the LEES values for a home energy system is explored. A maximum LEES reduction of over 37% vis-á-vis the base scenario was observed with optimal energy management for the solar generation and the battery system. The open-source availability of ESN can contribute to transparency, comparability, and reproducibility in carbon footprint assessments of localized energy systems with energy storage.

Original languageEnglish
Article number118208
JournalEnergy Conversion and Management
StatePublished - 15 Mar 2024


  • Battery energy storage system
  • Carbon footprint
  • Energy System Network
  • Energy system
  • LEES
  • Levelized Emissions of Energy Supply (LEES)
  • State of Carbon Intensity (SOCI)


Dive into the research topics of 'Quantifying the carbon footprint of energy storage applications with an energy system simulation framework — Energy System Network'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this