Pseudo-Image and Sparse Points: Vehicle Detection with 2D LiDAR Revisited by Deep Learning-Based Methods

Guang Chen, Fa Wang, Sanqing Qu, Kai Chen, Junwei Yu, Xiangyong Liu, Lu Xiong, Alois Knoll

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations

Abstract

Detecting and locating surrounding vehicles robustly and efficiently are essential capabilities for autonomous vehicles. Existing solutions often rely on vision-based methods or 3D LiDAR-based methods. These methods are either too expensive in both sensor pricing (3D LiDAR) and computation (camera and 3D LiDAR) or less robust in resisting harsh environment changes (camera). In this work, we revisit the LiDAR based approaches for vehicle detection with a less expensive 2D LiDAR by utilizing modern deep learning approaches. We aim at filling in the gap as few previous works conclude an efficient and robust vehicle detection solution in a deep learning way in 2D. To this end, we propose a learning based method with the input of pseudo-images, named Cascade Pyramid Region Proposal Convolution Neural Network (Cascade Pyramid RCNN), and a hybrid learning method with the input of sparse points, named Hybrid Resnet Lite. Experiments are conducted with our newly 2D LiDAR vehicle dataset recorded in complex traffic environments. Results demonstrate that the Cascade Pyramid RCNN outperforms state-of-the-art methods in accuracy while the proposed Hybrid Resnet Lite provides superior performance of the speed and lightweight model by hybridizing learning based and non-learning based modules. As few previous works conclude an efficient and robust vehicle detection solution with 2D LiDAR, our research fills in this gap and illustrates that even with limited sensing source from a 2D LiDAR, detecting obstacles like vehicles efficiently and robustly is still achievable.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7699-7711
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Volume22
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2021

Keywords

  • 2D LiDAR
  • Vehicle detection
  • autonomous driving
  • deep learning
  • intelligent transportation system

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