Progression of non-obstructive coronary plaque: a practical CCTA-based risk score from the PARADIGM registry

Gianluca Pontone, Alexia Rossi, Andrea Baggiano, Daniele Andreini, Edoardo Conte, Laura Fusini, Chaterine Gebhard, Mark G. Rabbat, Andrea Guaricci, Marco Guglielmo, Giuseppe Muscogiuri, Saima Mushtaq, Mouaz H. Al-Mallah, Daniel S. Berman, Matthew J. Budoff, Filippo Cademartiri, Kavitha Chinnaiyan, Jung Hyun Choi, Eun Ju Chun, Pedro de Araújo GonçalvesIlan Gottlieb, Martin Hadamitzky, Yong Jin Kim, Byoung Kwon Lee, Sang Eun Lee, Erica Maffei, Hugo Marques, Habib Samady, Sanghoon Shin, Ji Min Sung, Alexander van Rosendael, Renu Virmani, Jeroen J. Bax, Jonathon A. Leipsic, Fay Y. Lin, James K. Min, Jagat Narula, Leslee J. Shaw, Hyuk Jae Chang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Objectives: No clear recommendations are endorsed by the different scientific societies on the clinical use of repeat coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in patients with non-obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). This study aimed to develop and validate a practical CCTA risk score to predict medium-term disease progression in patients at a low-to-intermediate probability of CAD. Methods: Patients were part of the Progression of AtheRosclerotic PlAque Determined by Computed Tomographic Angiography Imaging (PARADIGM) registry. Specifically, 370 (derivation cohort) and 219 (validation cohort) patients with two repeat, clinically indicated CCTA scans, non-obstructive CAD, and absence of high-risk plaque (≥ 2 high-risk features) at baseline CCTA were included. Disease progression was defined as the new occurrence of ≥ 50% stenosis and/or high-risk plaque at follow-up CCTA. Results: In the derivation cohort, 104 (28%) patients experienced disease progression. The median time interval between the two CCTAs was 3.3 years (2.7–4.8). Odds ratios for disease progression derived from multivariable logistic regression were as follows: 4.59 (95% confidence interval: 1.69–12.48) for the number of plaques with spotty calcification, 3.73 (1.46–9.52) for the number of plaques with low attenuation component, 2.71 (1.62–4.50) for 25–49% stenosis severity, 1.47 (1.17–1.84) for the number of bifurcation plaques, and 1.21 (1.02–1.42) for the time between the two CCTAs. The C-statistics of the model were 0.732 (0.676–0.788) and 0.668 (0.583–0.752) in the derivation and validation cohorts, respectively. Conclusions: The new CCTA-based risk score is a simple and practical tool that can predict mid-term CAD progression in patients with known non-obstructive CAD. Clinical relevance statement: The clinical implementation of this new CCTA-based risk score can help promote the management of patients with non-obstructive coronary disease in terms of timing of imaging follow-up and therapeutic strategies. Key Points: • No recommendations are available on the use of repeat CCTA in patients with non-obstructive CAD. • This new CCTA score predicts mid-term CAD progression in patients with non-obstructive stenosis at baseline. • This new CCTA score can help guide the clinical management of patients with non-obstructive CAD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2665-2676
Number of pages12
JournalEuropean Radiology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2024


  • Computed tomography angiography
  • Coronary artery disease
  • Disease progression


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