Potential Analysis of Defossilized Operation of a Heavy-Duty Dual-Fuel Engine Utilizing Dimethyl Carbonate/Methyl Formate as Primary and Poly Oxymethylene Dimethyl Ether as Pilot Fuel

Markus Sebastian Mühlthaler, Martin Härtl, Malte Jaensch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

This study demonstrates the defossilized operation of a heavy-duty port-fuel-injected dual-fuel engine and highlights its potential benefits with minimal retrofitting effort. The investigation focuses on the optical characterization of the in-cylinder processes, ranging from mixture formation, ignition, and combustion, on a fully optically accessible single-cylinder research engine. The article revisits selected operating conditions in a thermodynamic configuration combined with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. One approach is to quickly diminish fossil fuel use by retrofitting present engines with decarbonized or defossilized alternatives. As both fuels are oxygenated, a considerable change in the overall ignition limits, air-fuel equivalence ratio, burning rate, and resistance against undesired pre-ignition or knocking is expected, with dire need of characterization. Two simultaneous high-speed recording channels granted cycle-resolved access to the natural flame luminosity, which was recorded in red/green/blue and OH chemiluminescence. Selected conditions were investigated in more detail with the simultaneous application of planar laser-induced fluorescence of OH and HCHO and recording natural flame luminescence in a cycle-averaged manner. Poly oxymethylene dimethyl ether was used as pilot fuel, building on prior investigations. The mixture of 65 vol% Dimethyl Carbonate and 35 vol% Methyl Formate with prior verification on a passenger-car-sized engine substitutes synthetic natural gas in this study. Thermodynamically, the increased compression ratio up to 17.6 resulted in feasible operation and increased indicated efficiency. On the lower compression ratio of 15.48, a more comprehensive range of applicable air-fuel equivalence ratios and increased degrees of freedom regarding the pilot's total energy share are observed compared to the base configuration with natural gas and EN590 as pilot fuel. The air-fuel equivalence ratio sweep from λ = 1.0-2.0 revealed predominantly premixed and high-temperature heat release via OH*. The temporal and spatial evolution shifts while leaning out the mixture with increasing gradients on the radial distribution and decouples for lean mixtures from the initial spray trajectory.

Original languageEnglish
JournalSAE International Journal of Engines
Volume17
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - 18 Apr 2024

Keywords

  • Alternative fuels
  • Chemiluminescence
  • Dual-fuel
  • E-fuels
  • Flame luminescence
  • Formaldehyde
  • Hydroxyl
  • Laser-induced fluorescence
  • Optical engine
  • Oxygenates
  • Spectroscopy

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