Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) determined by pine needles and semipermeable membrane devices along an altitude profile in Taurus Mountains, Turkey

Cafer Turgut, Mehmet Ali Mazmanci, Birgül Mazmanci, Melis Yalçın, Perihan Binnur Kurt Karakuş, Levent Atatanir, Menekşe Keski, Bernhard Henkelmann, Gerd Pfister, Karl Werner Schramm

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10 Scopus citations

Abstract

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed at different altitudes of Taurus Mountains in semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD) and in half-, one-and-a-half-, and two-and-a-half-year-old pine needles. SPMDs were deployed for three different exposure periods: March to September (Summer), September to March (Winter), and March to March (whole year) at eight sites where needle samples were collected. The values of PAHs in needles were between 4.4 to 6066 pg g/fw in half-year-old, 7.2 to 111,115 pg g/fw in 1.5-year-old, and 9.7 to 85,335 pg g/fw in 2.5-year-old needles. Mass of PAHs collected by SPMDs varied from <MDL to 8060 ng/SPMD in winter, from 0.98 to 585 ng/SPMD in summer, and <MDL to 9360 ng/SPMD in whole year deployment, respectively. PAH profiles were dependent on the seasonal differences and locations. Roughly, clear decreasing trends with altitude were observed both with SPMD and needles for many individual and groups of PAHs except for the SPMD-summer short-time data. A cross-plot of Fluo/(Fluo+Pyr) vs Ant/(Ant+Phe) diagnostic ratios indicated grass/wood burning (possibly due to forest fires) in summer and petrogenic combustion in winter. Results of the study showed that SPMD and conifer needles are effective passive samplers to measure PAHs in the environment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7077-7087
Number of pages11
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Volume24
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2017

Keywords

  • Altitude profile
  • Long-range transport
  • Mountains
  • Needles
  • PAH
  • Passive monitoring
  • SPMD

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