Pocket hematoma after pacemaker or implantable cardioverter defibrillator surgery: Influence of patient morbidity, operation strategy, and perioperative antiplatelet/anticoagulation therapy

Uwe K.H. Wiegand, Dominik LeJeune, Frank Boguschewski, Hendrik Bonnemeier, Frank Eberhardt, Heribert Schunkert, Frank Bode

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

192 Scopus citations

Abstract

Study objectives: Pocket hematoma is a common complication after pacemaker or implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation. Thus, we investigated the influence of patient comorbidity, implantation strategy, operator experience, antiplatelet therapy, and anticoagulation therapy on hematoma rate. Design: Between 1990 and 2002, a total of 3,164 devices (pectoral pacemakers, 2,792; ICDs, 372) were implanted at our institution. Predictors of hematoma occurrence were determined prospectively and were analyzed by multivariate regression analysis. Operator experience was graded by individual implantation number, as follows: low, < 50; medium, 50 to 100; and high, > 100. Results: The incidence of pocket hematoma was 4.9%, leading to prolonged hospitalizalion in 2.0% of all patients. Reoperation for pocket hematoma was required in 1.0% of patients. High-dose heparinization (hazard ratio [HR], 4.2), combined acelylsalicylic acid (ASA)/thienopyridine treatment after coronary stenting (HR, 5.2), and low operator experience (HR, 1.6) were independently predictive of hematoma development. Therapy with ASA alone did not increase the hematoma rate compared to patients who did receive antiplatelet or anticoagulalion therapy (3.1% vs 2.5%, respectively; difference not significant). In patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, postoperative high-dose heparinization substantially increased the hematoma rate (10.7% vs 2.9%, respectively; p < 0.001) without reducing the rate of arterial embolism within the first month after implantation (0.18% vs 0.21%, respectively; difference not significant). The infection rate (0.28% within 3 months after implantation) was not influenced by the presence of the pocket hematoma. Conclusions: The use of high-dose heparinizalion and combined ASA/thienopyridine treatment are highly predictive for the occurrence of intraoperative bleeding and pocket hematoma in patients who have undergone pacemaker and ICD surgery. We propose recommendations for the management of antiplatelet and anticoagulation therapy in patients undergoing these interventions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1177-1186
Number of pages10
JournalChest
Volume126
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2004
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Anticoagulation
  • Antiplatelet therapy
  • Arterial embolism
  • Artificial pacemaker
  • Hematoma
  • Implantable cardioverter defibrillator

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