PID controller tuning rules for integrating processes with varying time-delays

L. Eriksson, T. Oksanen, K. Mikkola

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations


This paper discusses PID controller tuning for integrating processes with varying time-delays. Most of the existing tuning rules for the first-order lag plus integrator plus delay (FOLIPD) processes that we mainly focus on have the same general structure, and the properties of these rules are discussed in conjunction with varying time-delays. The analysis leads to novel tuning rules, where the maximum amplitude of an arbitrarily varying time-delay can be given as a parameter, which makes the use of the rules attractive in several applications. We will also extend the analysis to integrating processes with second-order lag and apply the design guidelines for a networked control application. In addition, we propose a novel tuning method that optimizes the closed-loop performance with respect to certain robustness constraints while also providing robustness to delay variance via jitter margin maximization. Further, we develop new PID controller tuning rules for a wide range of processes based on the proposed method. The new tuning rules are discussed in detail and compared with some of the recently published results. The work was originally motivated by the need for robust but simultaneously well-performing PID parameters in an agricultural machine case process. We also demonstrate the superiority of the proposed tuning rules in the case process.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)470-487
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of the Franklin Institute
Issue number5
StatePublished - Jun 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Integrating processes
  • Networked control systems
  • PID control
  • Tuning
  • Varying time-delay systems


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