Physicobiochemical synergism through gene therapy and functional tissue engineering for in vitro chondrogenesis.

Gian M. Salzmann, Benedikt Nuernberger, Philipp Schmitz, Martina Anton, Martin J. Stoddart, Sibylle Grad, Stefan Milz, Thomas Tischer, Stephan Vogt, Bernd Gansbacher, Andreas B. Imhoff, Mauro Alini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


Mechanical and chemical stimulation have been shown to enhance in vitro chondrogenesis. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare combined physicobiochemical effects. Bovine articular chondrocytes were retrovirally transduced to express bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) or left as naïve controls. Cells were seeded in three-dimensional polyurethane scaffolds and further cultured under static conditions or exposed to dynamic compression and shear in a joint-specific bioreactor. Four groups: control (A), load (B), BMP-2-infected (C), and BMP-2-infected plus load (D) were analyzed for DNA and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content; collagen I, II, and X; aggrecan, (cartilage oligomeric protein (COMP), superficial zone protein, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3; MMP-13 mRNA; histology; and immunohistochemistry at 7, 21, and 35 days post-seeding. Synergistic effects (D) were higher than the sum of the individual treatments (B and C) for GAG/DNA, collagen II, and COMP. Histology revealed a functional organization in D including an intense safranin O staining in C and D superior to that in A and B. Immunostaining for collagen II and aggrecan was detected in C and D and was strongest in D. The results show that both stimuli augment in vitro chondrogenesis better than in controls. Biochemical manipulation proved to be predominantly more effective than load, and synergistic effects were demonstrated.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2513-2524
Number of pages12
JournalTissue Engineering - Part A
Issue number9
StatePublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes


Dive into the research topics of 'Physicobiochemical synergism through gene therapy and functional tissue engineering for in vitro chondrogenesis.'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this