Photoelectron microscopy and applications in surface and materials science

S. Günther, B. Kaulich, L. Gregoratti, M. Kiskinova

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

186 Scopus citations

Abstract

We review the recent achievements of photoelectron microscopy (PEM), which is a rapidly developing technique that is significantly advancing the frontiers of surface and materials science. The operation principles of scanning photoelectron microscopes (SPEM), using different photon optic systems to obtain a micro-probe of sub-micrometer dimensions, and of the full-field imaging microscope, using electrostatic lenses for magnification of the irradiated sample area, are presented. The contrast mechanisms, based on photon absorption and photon-induced electron emission, are described and the expected development in the photon and electron optics and detection systems are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the present state-of-art performance of the microscopes collecting photoelectrons (PEs), which carry specific information about the lateral variations in the chemical, magnetic and electronic properties of the material under investigation. Selected results, obtained recently with instruments installed at synchrotron light facilities, are used to illustrate the potential of PEM in characterising micro-phases and dynamic processes with a lateral resolution better than 100 nm.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)187-260
Number of pages74
JournalProgress in Surface Science
Volume70
Issue number4-8
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2002
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Photoelectron emission microscopy
  • Photoelectron microscopy
  • Photoemission
  • Scanning photoelectron microscopy
  • Spectromicroscopy
  • Surface science
  • X-ray absorption near edge structure
  • X-ray absorption spectroscopy
  • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

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