Phosphapalladacycle-catalyzed heck reactions for efficient synthesis of trisubstituted olefins: Evidence for palladium(0) intermediates

Matthias Beller, Thomas H. Riermeier

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

135 Scopus citations

Abstract

The coupling reaction of 1,1-disubstituted olefins (α-methyl-styrene, n-butyl methacrylate) with various aryl bromides (Heck reaction) has been studied as a new concept to synthesize trisubstituted olefins. Surprisingly, the nature of the base dramatically influences the product distribution. Thus, a systematic investigation on the role of base in Heck reactions of 1,1-disubstituted olefins was performed. Less coordinating bases like NaOAc, NaOBz or Na2CO3 yield a statistical distribution of regioisomers with the terminal olefin 10 as the major product. However, by using amines like Bu3N or diisopropylethylamine (DIPEA) as base internal olefins can be synthesized with high selectivities. With phosphapalladacycle 3 as catalyst precursor, we were able to obtain catalyst turnover numbers up to 1000, while Pd(OAc)2/2PPh3 was one order of magnitude less active. Analysis of the reaction profile by kinetic investigations led to the postulation of a reduction and subsequent oxidative addition of the catalyst precursor 3 to form 12 as catalytically active intermediate.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)29-35
Number of pages7
JournalEuropean Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1998
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • C-C coupling
  • Catalysis
  • Metallacycles
  • Palladium
  • Trisubstituted olefins

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