Patient-reported effects of hospital-wide implementation of shared decision-making at a university medical centre in Germany: A pre-post trial

Fülöp Scheibler, Friedemann Geiger, Kai Wehkamp, Marion Danner, Marie Debrouwere, Constanze Stolz-Klingenberg, Anja Schuldt-Joswig, Christina Gesine Sommer, Olga Kopeleva, Claudia Bünzen, Christine Wagner-Ullrich, Gerhard Koch, Marie Coors, Felix Wehking, Marla Clayman, Christian Weymayr, Leonie Sundmacher, Jens Ulrich Rüffer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Objectives To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of the SHARE TO CARE (S2C) programme, a complex intervention designed for hospital-wide implementation of shared decision-making (SDM). Design Pre-post study. Setting University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein (UKSH), Kiel Campus. Participants Healthcare professionals as well as inpatients and outpatients from 22 departments of the Kiel Campus of UKSH. Interventions The S2C programme is a comprehensive implementation strategy including four core modules: (1) physician training, (2) SDM support training for and support by nurses as decision coaches, (3) patient activation and (4) evidence-based patient decision aid development and integration into patient pathways. After full implementation, departments received the S2C certificate. Main outcome measures In this paper, we report on the feasibility and effectiveness outcomes of the implementation. Feasibility was judged by the degree of implementation of the four modules of the programme. Outcome measures for effectiveness are patient-reported experience measures (PREMs). The primary outcome measure for effectiveness is the Patient Decision Making subscale of the Perceived Involvement in Care Scale (PICS PDM). Pre-post comparisons were done using t-Tests. Results The implementation of the four components of the S2C programme was able to be completed in 18 of the 22 included departments within the time frame of the study. After completion of implementation, PICS PDM showed a statistically significant difference (p<0.01) between the means compared with baseline. This difference corresponds to a small to medium yet clinically meaningful positive effect (Hedges' g=0.2). Consistent with this, the secondary PREMs (Preparation for Decision Making and collaboRATE) also showed statistically significant, clinically meaningful positive effects. Conclusions The hospital-wide implementation of SDM with the S2C-programme proved to be feasible and effective within the time frame of the project. The German Federal Joint Committee has recommended to make the Kiel model of SDM a national standard of care.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)87-95
Number of pages9
JournalBMJ Evidence-Based Medicine
Issue number2
StatePublished - 27 Oct 2023


  • Clinical Decision-Making
  • EDUCATION & TRAINING (see Medical Education & Training)


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