Pancreatic cancer microenvironment

Jörg Kleeff, Philipp Beckhove, Irene Esposito, Stephan Herzig, Peter E. Huber, J. Matthias Löhr, Helmut Friess

Research output: Contribution to journalShort surveypeer-review

160 Scopus citations


Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma remains an extremely aggressive malignancy that is virtually therapy-resistant and has therefore one of the worst prognoses of all human cancers. The focus of research, which had been placed mostly on genetic and epigenetic alterations of the cancer cells themselves, has shifted gradually towards the microenvironment. The cancer microenvironment consists of various components, including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, immune cells, and endocrine cells, that interact with each other and the cancer cells in a complex fashion. This interplay has implications for pancreatic cancer cell growth, migration and invasion, angiogenesis, and immunological recognition of cancer cells. Evidence is accumulating that the cancer microenvironment plays an active role in disease progression, and efforts are being made to target this interplay between cancer cells and host cells to improve the outcome of this deadly disease.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)699-705
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Cancer
Issue number4
StatePublished - 15 Aug 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Angiogenesis
  • Desmoplasia
  • Endocrine cells
  • Immune cells
  • Stellate cells


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