Otoacoustic Emissions in Non-Mammals

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2 Scopus citations


Otoacoustic emissions (OAE) that were sound-induced, current-induced, or spontaneous have been measured in non-mammalian land vertebrates, including in amphibians, reptiles, and birds. There are no forms of emissions known from mammals that have not also been observed in non-mammals. In each group and species, the emission frequencies clearly lie in the range known to be processed by the hair cells of the respective hearing organs. With some notable exceptions, the patterns underlying the measured spectra, input-output functions, suppression threshold curves, etc., show strong similarities to OAE measured in mammals. These profound similarities are presumably traceable to the fact that emissions are produced by active hair-cell mechanisms that are themselves dependent upon comparable nonlinear cellular processes. The differences observed—for example, in the width of spontaneous emission peaks and delay times in interactions between peaks—should provide insights into how hair-cell activity is coupled within the organ and thus partially routed out into the middle ear.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)260-272
Number of pages13
JournalAudiology Research
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • amphibian
  • auditory organ
  • basilar papilla
  • bird
  • hearing epithelium
  • lizard
  • reptile


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