Organophosphonate biofunctionalization of diamond electrodes

R. Caterino, R. Csiki, M. Wiesinger, M. Sachsenhauser, M. Stutzmann, J. A. Garrido, A. Cattani-Scholz, Giorgio Speranza, S. D. Janssens, K. Haenen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


The modification of the diamond surface with organic molecules is a crucial aspect to be considered for any bioapplication of this material. There is great interest in broadening the range of linker molecules that can be covalently bound to the diamond surface. In the case of protein immobilization, the hydropathicity of the surface has a major influence on the protein conformation and, thus, on the functionality of proteins immobilized at surfaces. For electrochemical applications, particular attention has to be devoted to avoid that the charge transfer between the electrode and the redox center embedded in the protein is hindered by a thick insulating linker layer. This paper reports on the grafting of 6-phosphonohexanoic acid on OH-terminated diamond surfaces, serving as linkers to tether electroactive proteins onto diamond surfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirms the formation of a stable layer on the surface. The charge transfer between electroactive molecules and the substrate is studied by electrochemical characterization of the redox activity of aminomethylferrocene and cytochrome c covalently bound to the substrate through this linker. Our work demonstrates that OH-terminated diamond functionalized with 6-phosphonohexanoic acid is a suitable platform to interface redox-proteins, which are fundamental building blocks for many bioelectronics applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13909-13916
Number of pages8
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number16
StatePublished - 27 Aug 2014


  • diamonds
  • electrochemistry
  • organophosphonates
  • surface functionalization


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