Optimizing the spatial arrangement of groundwater heat pumps and their well locations

Smajil Halilovic, Fabian Böttcher, Kai Zosseder, Thomas Hamacher

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Increasing numbers of groundwater heat pump systems in urban areas can lead to negative thermal interference between neighboring systems. These systems and their associated wells can be optimally positioned so as to minimize such interactions and maximize the use of the shallow geothermal potential. This paper presents a new method that determines the optimal positioning of groundwater heat pumps and their wells by concurrently considering relevant technical and regulatory constraints. The method is based on an improved analytical model for estimating thermal anomalies in groundwater, i.e. thermal plumes, and integer linear programming optimization. The method is tested using a neighborhood with 56 parcels, i.e. potential systems, in two optimization cases: steady and dynamic. In both cases, the method successfully determines both the systems to be installed and the optimal locations of the wells such that relevant spatial regulations are satisfied and the energy extracted from the aquifer is maximized. The dynamic case is somewhat more restrictive, as 43 of 56 potential systems are installed, compared to 44 in the steady case. This method represents a significant improvement over existing ones, since it is able to efficiently optimize the locations and well layouts of a large number of systems simultaneously.

Original languageEnglish
Article number119148
JournalRenewable Energy
StatePublished - Nov 2023


  • Geothermal potential
  • Groundwater
  • Heat pump
  • Optimization
  • Well layout


Dive into the research topics of 'Optimizing the spatial arrangement of groundwater heat pumps and their well locations'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this