Optimizing forest management for timber production, carbon sequestration and groundwater recharge

Horst Kolo, Mengistie Kindu, Thomas Knoke

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


Forest management decisions about species mixture and harvest time are usually bound to economic considerations. Ecosystem services (ES), aside from timber production, are hardly considered. Although the consideration of multiple ES became common in recent years, it is still unclear how ES can be integrated into forest optimization and how this changes forest management. To show possible changes when different ES are considered, our study examined the impact of the market value of three ES (timber production, carbon storage and groundwater recharge) on management decisions under different levels of risk. We included two common European tree species (European beech and Norway spruce) as well as market risks and the risk of stand failure in our optimization. We examined how the optimal species composition and harvest schedule change when considering different ES. The inclusion of different ES changes the optimal harvest schedule and species composition. Including carbon storage leads to small changes in harvest schedule and species composition. Adding groundwater recharge led to a diversified portfolio but it consisted completely of European beech. We also discuss ecological complexities so far not considered in our approach and their possible consequences for the results.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101147
JournalEcosystem Services
StatePublished - Aug 2020


  • Carbon storage
  • Groundwater recharge
  • Optimal harvest schedule
  • Risk
  • Timber harvest


Dive into the research topics of 'Optimizing forest management for timber production, carbon sequestration and groundwater recharge'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this