Optimal injection strategies to compensate for injector aging in common rail fuel systems

Oliver Hofmann, Sebastian Schuckert, Georg Wachtmeister, Daniel J. Rixen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Aging effects such as coking or erosive damage that occur in fuel injection nozzles are known to deteriorate the engine performance. This article proposes an optimization method to compensate for injector aging and to control the combustion behavior over engine lifetime by adapting the injection strategy. First, a control-oriented combustion model is presented, which takes the condition of the injection nozzle into account. In combination with a simulation model of the entire fuel injection system from a previous study, the model is capable of predicting the heat release rate (HRR) at different working conditions. Measurements with a single-cylinder diesel engine were performed, using injectors with modified and aged nozzles, to validate the proposed combustion model and particularly to analyze the influence of injector aging. Using the simulation model, optimal injection strategies were obtained by applying a line search optimization scheme to recover a reference HRR trajectory. Simulation results of the proposed method demonstrate the great potential for improving long-term engine efficiency and controlling exhaust emissions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2018-01-1160
JournalSAE International Journal of Engines
Issue number6
StatePublished - 3 Apr 2018


  • Aging effects
  • Coking phenomenon
  • Combustion process
  • Engine efficiency
  • Fuel injection
  • Injection strategies
  • Nozzles
  • Optimization
  • Simulation and modeling


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