Operating conditions of batteries in off-grid renewable energy systems

Vojtech Svoboda, Heinz Wenzl, Rudi Kaiser, Andreas Jossen, Ian Baring-Gould, James Manwell, Per Lundsager, Henrik Bindner, Tom Cronin, Per Nørgård, Alan Ruddell, Adolfo Perujo, Kevin Douglas, Carlos Rodrigues, António Joyce, Stathis Tselepis, Nico van der Borg, Frans Nieuwenhout, Nigel Wilmot, Florence MatteraDirk Uwe Sauer

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86 Scopus citations


Operating conditions in off-grid renewable energy systems (RES) vary significantly in different applications and locations. To describe RES and the operating conditions of their components it is useful to define categories of similar operating conditions. Categories can also be used for lifetime considerations of RES components, for making recommendations and for analysing the properties and performance of a RES and its components. Categories support system designers and an economic analysis. This paper describes the process and the results of creating RES categories of similar operating conditions for batteries. Categories are defined in such a way that batteries belonging to the same category are subjected to similar operating conditions and a similar combination of stress factors. The results provide a comprehensive overview of battery operating conditions in existing off-grid renewable energy systems. This work is part of the EU research project Benchmarking.1"Benchmarking" (ENK6-CT-2001-80576) is a project funded mainly by the European Union but also by the governments of Australia, the United States of America, a number of European states and other public and private organisations.1.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1409-1425
Number of pages17
JournalSolar Energy
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Ageing processes
  • Lead acid battery
  • Operating conditions
  • Renewable energy systems


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