Online adaptation for humanoids walking on uncertain surfaces

Majid Khadiv, S. Ali A. Moosavian, Aghil Yousefi-Koma, Hessam Maleki, Majid Sadedel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


In this article, an online adaptation algorithm for bipedal walking on uneven surfaces with height uncertainty is proposed. To generate walking patterns on flat terrains, the trajectories in the task space are planned to satisfy the dynamic balance and slippage avoidance constraints and also to guarantee smooth landing of the swing foot. To ensure smooth landing of the swing foot on surfaces with height uncertainty, the preplanned trajectories in the task space should be adapted. The proposed adaptation algorithm consists of two stages. In the first stage, once the swing foot reaches its maximum height, the supervisory control is initiated until the touch is detected. After the detection, the trajectories in the task space are modified to guarantee smooth landing. In the second stage, this modification is preserved during the double support phase and released in the next single support phase. Effectiveness of the proposed online adaptation algorithm is experimentally verified through realization of the walking patterns on the SURENA III humanoid robot, designed and fabricated at Center of Advanced Systems and Technologies. The walking is tested on a surface with various flat obstacles, where the swing foot is prone to land on the ground either soon or late.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)245-258
Number of pages14
JournalProceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part I: Journal of Systems and Control Engineering
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Humanoid robot
  • biped robot
  • gait planning
  • online adaptation


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