On the reproducibility of extrusion-based bioprinting: round robin study on standardization in the field

David Grijalva Garces, Svenja Strauß, Sarah Gretzinger, Barbara Schmieg, Tomasz Jüngst, Jürgen Groll, Lorenz Meinel, Isabelle Schmidt, Hanna Hartmann, Katja Schenke-Layland, Nico Brandt, Michael Selzer, Stefan Zimmermann, Peter Koltay, Alexander Southan, Günter E.M. Tovar, Sarah Schmidt, Achim Weber, Tilman Ahlfeld, Michael GelinskyThomas Scheibel, Rainer Detsch, Aldo R. Boccaccini, Toufik Naolou, Cornelia Lee-Thedieck, Christian Willems, Thomas Groth, Stephan Allgeier, Bernd Köhler, Tiaan Friedrich, Heiko Briesen, Janine Buchholz, Dietrich Paulus, Anselm von Gladiss, Jürgen Hubbuch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


The outcome of three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting heavily depends, amongst others, on the interaction between the developed bioink, the printing process, and the printing equipment. However, if this interplay is ensured, bioprinting promises unmatched possibilities in the health care area. To pave the way for comparing newly developed biomaterials, clinical studies, and medical applications (i.e. printed organs, patient-specific tissues), there is a great need for standardization of manufacturing methods in order to enable technology transfers. Despite the importance of such standardization, there is currently a tremendous lack of empirical data that examines the reproducibility and robustness of production in more than one location at a time. In this work, we present data derived from a round robin test for extrusion-based 3D printing performance comprising 12 different academic laboratories throughout Germany and analyze the respective prints using automated image analysis (IA) in three independent academic groups. The fabrication of objects from polymer solutions was standardized as much as currently possible to allow studying the comparability of results from different laboratories. This study has led to the conclusion that current standardization conditions still leave room for the intervention of operators due to missing automation of the equipment. This affects significantly the reproducibility and comparability of bioprinting experiments in multiple laboratories. Nevertheless, automated IA proved to be a suitable methodology for quality assurance as three independently developed workflows achieved similar results. Moreover, the extracted data describing geometric features showed how the function of printers affects the quality of the printed object. A significant step toward standardization of the process was made as an infrastructure for distribution of material and methods, as well as for data transfer and storage was successfully established.

Original languageEnglish
Article number015002
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2024


  • 3D printing
  • bioink
  • extrusion-based bioprinting
  • reproducibility
  • round robin
  • technology transfer


Dive into the research topics of 'On the reproducibility of extrusion-based bioprinting: round robin study on standardization in the field'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this