Occurrence of type A, B and D trichothecenes in barley and barley products from the Bavarian market

Jörg Barthel, Christoph Gottschalk, Martin Rapp, Matthias Berger, Johann Bauer, Karsten Meyer

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26 Scopus citations


Fifty-nine samples of barley and barley products were analysed for 18 trichothecene mycotoxins by a sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/MS) method (detection limits 0.062-0.70 μg/kg) after sample extract clean-up on MycoSep®-226 columns. The samples were collected in 2009 from barley processing facilities (mills and malt houses) and at wholesale and retail stage from the Bavarian market. The predominant toxins were T-2 toxin (T-2), HT-2 toxin (HT-2) and deoxynivalenol (DON). For all samples, the mean levels of T-2 and HT-2 were 3.0 μg/kg and 6.8 μg/kg with rates of contamination of 63% and 71%, respectively. The maximum values were 40 μg/kg for T-2 and 47 μg/kg for HT-2. The rate of contamination with DON was high (95%) with a low mean level of 23 μg/kg. The DON levels ranged between 3.4 to 420 μg/kg. For T-2 tetraol, a mean level of 9.2 μg/kg and a maximum level of 51 μg/kg with a rate of contamination of 71% were determined. NIV was detected in 69% of the samples with a mean level of 11 μg/kg and a maximum level of 72 μg/kg. Other type A and B trichothecenes were detected only in traces. Type D trichothecenes, fusarenon-X, verrucarol and 4,15- diacetylverrucarol were not detected in any sample. Winter barley and malting barley were the most contaminated groups of all samples in this study. In malting barley, the highest levels of contamination with typeA trichothecenes were found. In contrast, winter barley showed the highest contamination with type B trichothecenes. The lowest mycotoxin concentrations were found in de-hulled and naked barley and in pearl barley.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)97-106
Number of pages10
JournalMycotoxin Research
Issue number2
StatePublished - May 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Barley
  • Bavaria
  • LC-MS/MS
  • Mycotoxins
  • T-2 toxin
  • Trichothecenes


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